Wondering about the best way to crate train your puppy or adult dog? Or if you should even bother? Perhaps you’re worried that it might be cruel to confine your dog to a crate? (It’s
If you’re at all curious about crate training a dog, regardless of their age, you’ve come to the right place. This article will answer all your questions (including how long you can leave a puppy in a crate!) and walk you through a stress-free process of crate training.
Crate Training Your New Puppy or Dog
Are Dogs Den Animals?
First, let’s start with clearing up some potential confusion and putting your mind at ease. You may have seen conflicting articles or received differing opinions on whether dogs are “den animals” (animals that live the majority of their lives underground or in a cave). The truth is that while dogs aren’t technically “den animals,” as they certainly don’t spend the majority of their lives in a den, they do have a “denning instinct.” Pregnant dogs seek out the safety of a den to birth and rear their pups. So some of your puppy’s earliest memories tie back to the comfort and safety of being with mom (and litter mates) in a safe, secure, den-like space. Additionally, when dogs are ill, injured, or otherwise needing a place to relax and feel safe, they will seek out a den or “den-like” protected space. While you may worry that your dog will see their crate as a “jail cell,” the truth is actually quite the opposite. When crate training and conditioning is handled correctly, a crate provides a calming and protective space where your dog can relax and feel secure — and truly be safe.
Benefits of Crate Training Your New Puppy or Dog
Crates benefit both ends of the leash: your dog and you. They aren’t just relaxing and protective for your pup, they also provide you with peace of mind and precious moments of relaxation! Here are some of the reasons why crate training is beneficial:
- Help with housetraining: A crate is a great tool to help housetrain a puppy.
- Noise refuge: The crate provides a safe space for your dog to relax, as well as a place to retreat during anxiety-inducing times like holidays, parties, thunderstorms, rampaging kids, and a host of other potentially stressful events that happen in our homes on a regular basis.
- Easy transport: Crates make it easier to safely transport your dog in the car.
- Injury and toxicity prevention: A crate can help prevent injuries and poisonings for dogs when
they’re lefthome alone while you run errands or go to work. (After all, you can’t — and shouldn’t — always bring them along with you. Avoiding Heat Stroke on a warm day is just one reason why.)
- Protect your stuff: Crate training helps protect your furniture, floors, and the rest of your home while you’re out.
- Home away from home: A dog that’s properly crate conditioned will be more comfortable and relaxed when they need to be
cratedat the vet, groomer, or a boarding kennel.
- Post-surgery convalescence: They’ll also be happier, safer, and less likely to have
surgicalfailure or other complications following any surgeries that require post-operative exercise restriction (e.g., spay, fracture repair, cruciate surgery).
How to Choose a Crate
- Start by selecting a crate that’s big enough for your dog to comfortably stand up, turn around, and lie down in with outstretched legs.
- Bigger is not better! Go too big and your dog may not have as much hesitation to go pee or poo in there.
- For puppies, continue to follow the size guide of just big enough to stand, turn, and lie down in. Of course, this could get expensive, as you may have to get another, larger crate as your pup grows. Fortunately, there are crates that have removable and adjustable partitions, allowing the crate to “grow” with your puppy. Save yourself a chunk of change and opt for one of those!
- Choose the crate’s materials. “Airplane kennels” (a plastic crate with a metal door) or metal wire-type crates are typically the best — especially for a puppy or adult dog just starting their crate training. These materials are typically sturdier and easier to clean than the cloth-type crates. Once your dog already loves being in a crate, if you want to get a cloth crate for easier transport or a fancy wooden one to better match your home décor, have at it. But it’s a good idea to start and progress
thoughcrate training with an airplane-type or metal wire crate.
Plastic Carriers and Kennels
The airplane-style carriers recommended below come in a variety of sizes, are sturdy and easy to clean, and can be easily used to transport your dog (be it on a plane or in your car or truck). They're also easy to transport or store, as you can separate the top and bottom portions to easily stack them. This feature also makes it easy to convert the crate into a comfortable bed for your dog should you ever not need it as a crate. Just put a comfortable mat or cushy bed in the bottom portion of the crate and store the top portion.
Folding Metal Dog Crate — It "grows" with your dog
The MidWest iCrate recommended below is great for crate training a puppy because it can "grow" with your dog. This crate comes with a divider panel that allows you to keep the crate puppy-sized at first, then remove the panel when your puppy is large enough for the full crate. It also folds up easily for storage or transport and has two doors for your pup to go in and out. The MidWest crates can also be attached to a MidWest ex-pen for a fun and effective modular containment system for your pup (see below).
Adding a cover to the crate: If you choose to use a wire crate, like the MidWest crate featured, you may want to consider adding a cover (make sure to choose the size that fits the crate you have). It's not necessary for making your pup more comfortable, but it could possibly help by creating a more den-like space for your pup. This would be a preference only your dog will weigh-in on. In that if your particular dog is helped by having their crate covered, this is likely a better option than towels, sheets, etc., as this fits more snuggly, possibly allows better airflow and, looks nicer, and is less likely to get pulled through and eaten. However, if your dog does have a habit of pulling their crate covers through and eating them, I recommend against covering their crate in general.
The ZenCrate is good option for a pup or adult dog that's already comfortable being in their crate — and isn't likely to try and chew their way out — when you'd like to provide them with a more stylish crate that has some fun built-in features to help make their "den space" a bit more "zen." Definitely a bit on the spendy side, but with built-in vibration dampening feet, calming music, and a fan, the ZenCrate can help you spoil your pup and help ease anxieties they may experience with thunder and fireworks.
Ex-pens... the "not quite crates": Exercise pens (a.k.a. Ex-pens, for short) are another type of confinement system for puppies and dogs. Unlike crates and kennels, ex-pens are open on the top and are more flexible in terms of their shape and size, as you can often adjust the shape and size to fit your area and your dog's size and, shall we say... maturity level. With the MidWest Ex-Pen highlighted below you can also attach 2 or more ex-pens together or even attach the ex-pen to your dog's MidWest crate, to provide them with both a place to rest (the crate) and a place to play and stretch out (the ex-pen) while still keeping them safe and confined. This ex-pen + crate set up can also be quite handy if you're pee-pad training your pup, as they can rest in their crate and then have the pee pad out in the ex-pen.
Where You Should Put Your Dog's Crate
- Choose a quiet spot away from high-traffic areas (not in a busy hallway!).
- Don’t place the crate in direct sunlight, right next to a radiator, or on top of an in-floor heating or cooling vent.
- Be sure there are no power cables, electric cords, or poisonous houseplants, like Sago Palms, that
yourcurious (or potentially bored) puppy might be able to reach when crated.
- Should you put your pup’s crate in your bedroom? That’s kinda your call. Before you make that call though, consider how sound (or not) of a sleeper you are, whether there are other pets in the home, what other crate locations are available to you, and any other personal factors.
Here's something to be aware of if you choose to let your dog sleep in your bed :)
- Check out these cool, custom dog crate ideas on Houzz! Here's an under-staircase one... a'la Harry Potter (but nicer looking)! Here's an under the kitchen counter built-in dog crate. And there's one built into the counter in a laundry room — before committing to this in your laundry room, just be sure that your dog isn't stressed by the sound or vibration of the washer or dryer and don't put it right next to the dryer, as that could get quite warm for pup!
Choosing Bedding for Your Dog’s Crate
It’s nice for your dog to have a soft, comfortable surface in their crate. However, if your pup is inclined to chew (and possibly even eat!) their bedding — which many young puppies are — either look for a rug or pad that’s “puppy teeth resistant” or leave out bedding altogether until your pup outgrows their mouthy, destructive stage.
Of course, it’s not just your dog’s teeth that you need to consider when thinking about their crate bedding. You should also give some consideration to pee and poo, and how messy their “crate treats” might be. Going with a surface that’s easily cleaned or washable, and one that’s
Recommended Dog Beds and Pads
These options recommended below are durable, comfortable, and waterproof, making them a good fit to cozy up the bottom of your dog's crate.
The K9 Ballistics pad is comfortable, durable, and easy to clean (machine washable). It's also odor resistant and can stand up to most mild-to-moderate chewing due to the fibers used in its construction.
Completely waterproof and highly supportive, this great dog bed is also quite durable for most dogs. A little pricey, but well worth the money. Also great for dogs with arthritis pain.
This is one of the most "chew-proof" options for dogs and comfortable, too! The K9 Ballistics "Cujo Cot" is a great option for many dogs and fits most standard-sized crates. It's also great in ex-pens, and even just out in the open when your pup is ready for that kind of freedom. It's a little pricey, but will last a long time and will help keep your pup (or older dog) super comfortable. Given it's elevated construction, it will also keep your pup from laying in any potty accidents they may have while in their crate and it can help to keep them cooler on warm days.
You’ll Need Lots of Treats for Crate Training
Crate training the right way means using a LOT of rewards! For most puppies and dogs, the best rewards are food rewards (“treats”). Of course, every dog is different, but many are food motivated. Every food reward carries a different “value” for a dog. For example, many dogs consider a small piece of cheese, boiled chicken, or liverwurst to be a “high-value reward,” meaning they’ll do just about anything for it! Fortunately, most dogs will happily progress through their crate (and other) training with any one of the
Once you’ve progressed to the point where you’re trying to get your dog to spend progressively longer periods of time in their crate, you’ll want to start replacing (or supplementing) their training treats with longer-lasting treats and food puzzles. Food puzzles are great because they occupy your dog’s mouth and brain for a much longer period of time than a simple treat or regular chew toy. Good examples include the variety of “stuffable” Kong toys, and those from West Paw Designs (e.g., the Qwizl or Toppl). Check out this article for more on choosing a good food puzzle or interactive feeder for your dog.
Your Dog Should “Go Naked” in Their Crate!
All puppies and adult dogs — and especially those who are still getting used to their crate — should have their harnesses and/or collars removed before being left alone in their crate. Harnesses, collars, and dangling ID tags can easily get caught on crate doors and between the bars of the crate, causing a huge and otherwise avoidable strangulation risk. All the more reason to have your dog microchipped, too!
How to Crate Train Your Dog
Here’s a step-by-step guide to crate train a puppy or adult dog. It’s provided by Preventive Vet’s good friend and contributor, Casey Newton, BS, CPDT-KA, trainer extraordinaire and owner of Wonder Puppy. Translation: She really knows what she’s talking about when it comes to crate training puppies! Here are her steps for stress-less crate training:
Step 1: Get It All Out
Step 2: Develop a Positive Association With the Crate
- Place cozy blankets and favorite toys inside the crate with the door wide open and allow your puppy to explore it on their own. If they don’t enter the crate, toss in a few treats to encourage further exploration.
- Any time you catch them going in, immediately click with a clicker (or use your marker word) to let them know that’s the behavior you want. Then give them a treat and praise. (Not sure how to clicker train? Check out our “Introduction to Clicker Training” article.)
- Feed your puppy their meals in the crate. If your puppy is still nervous about entering the crate, place the bowl closer to the opening for the first feeding and gradually move it farther into the crate.
- As your pup becomes comfortable eating inside the crate, you can close the door to the crate during feeding. Be sure to open the door as soon as your pup is finished.
Step 3: Work on Duration
While it may not happen the first time, the goal is to be able to leave your puppy in a closed crate for 15 minutes without stress.
Place your puppy in the crate (or ask your puppy to enter the crate) with their favorite toy or a food puzzle they love and close the door for about 15 seconds. Then let your puppy out of the crate and make a “5-second trade” for treats (give your puppy treats for 5 seconds) while you place their toy or food puzzle out of their reach. Hang out near the crate for about 10 seconds and repeat. Build up to longer durations until they are comfortable being closed in the crate for 15 minutes. Here are some additional tips to keep in mind:
- Progress slowly and do not leave your dog’s side.
- You’ll know you’re doing it right if your dog stays happily engaged with their toy or food puzzle, rather than whimpering or acting anxious.
- If your puppy struggles to meet the goals, try increasing the value of their toy or food puzzle (fill it with their favorite treats!) and/or make the time shorter.
- Throw in easy durations between the longer durations (i.e., 30 seconds, 45 seconds, 20 seconds, one minute, etc.).
- To make the first step easier and less scary for your puppy, close the crate door most of the way, but keep your hand inside. Hold onto their toy or food puzzle while they play with it, and praise and talk to them in a comforting voice. Do this until your puppy is comfortable playing even when your hand is out of the crate.
Step 4: Increase Your Distance From the Crate
Repeat Step 3, except increase distance instead of duration. Close the crate door with your puppy inside, walk halfway across the room, return, open the crate and make a trade. Repeat this until you are able to walk out of sight and return without your puppy feeling stressed.
Step 5: Distance + Duration
Add duration to the distance. Start with increments of 15–30 seconds while you walk around the house in and out of
How Long Can I Leave My Puppy in Their Crate?Use this chart as an age-based guide for how long your pup can “hold it” and stay in their crate.
Note that these are consecutive minutes/hours, not total time during the day or night.
Step 6 and Beyond: Distraction and Real Life
Once your puppy is comfortable being left in the crate for 15 minutes with their toy or food puzzle, you can start adding additional elements to the training:
- Leave your puppy in the crate for longer amounts of time.
- Try it without the toy; or, if using a food puzzle, delay your return once they’ve eaten all the stuff inside. Note: You should always give your dog a safe toy or entertaining food puzzle when
cratingthem, but you also want them to be okay when the entertainment that a toy or food puzzle provides runs out. If your puppy has been exercised and did well with the first five steps, this should be a natural and easy progression.
cratingto all of the necessary real-life scenarios, such as when you sleep, eat dinner, have visiting guests, ride in the car, etc. If your puppy vocalizes a little because they are excited or want to be let out, wait until they are calm before letting them out. That said, when first starting out with crate training (especially when working on Step 2, developing positive associations with the crate) you don’t want to let your pup “cry it out.” If they’re really not having fun, just let them out and start over at the duration/distance at which they were last comfortable and then work up more slowly.
Crate Training Do's and Don’ts
- Don’t use the crate for punishment or reprimand your dog while they’re in their crate.
Otherwiseyour dog will come to associate their crate with stress and other negative experiences, making crate training efforts much harder for you both.
- Don’t leave your dog in the crate all day. Crates are no substitute for a dog babysitter and a dog that is locked in a crate all day and night may develop anxiety and depression. If your work or other schedule conflicts will keep you away from home for a long chunk of the day, consider hiring a pet sitter or walker, or taking your dog to daycare so they can get the physical and mental exercise they need each day.
- Don’t leave young puppies in the crate for more than 3–4 hours at a time — they need more frequent potty breaks. See the table, “How Long Can I Leave My Puppy in Their Crate?” for a guide on how long a young pup can typically “hold it” and be left alone in their crate.
- Don’t make a big production out of your departure from the home. Have your dog “kennel up” and start working on their food puzzle or toy several minutes before your departure. Then just leave the house without fanfare while they’re happily playing with their toy/food puzzle.
- Do work in short training sessions and take the pace of advancement at your pup’s pace — don’t try to rush things.
- Do use LOTS of treats, patience, and praise.
- Do consider calming pheromones (like an Adaptil® diffuser) and relaxing music, which can help with crate training and can continue to be helpful even once your dog has mastered being in their crate.
- Do make sure that your pup has had some fun playtime and an outdoor potty opportunity before each crate training session.
- Do keep the excitement to a minimum when you return home, both during training and when you start leaving your pup crated during the day for real. Your low-key arrival will help reduce your dog’s anxiety and anticipation of your return home.
- Do take your puppy outside for a potty break as soon as they are let out of the crate. This will help to teach them that “potty time” happens right after “
cratetime,” which will help solidify your pup’s potty training.
Dogs Crate Train at Different Paces
As with any type of training, all dogs will learn and progress through their crate training at a different pace. The keys to success are consistency and patience (and lots of treats and positive reinforcement!). Follow those keys during training and you’ll soon have a dog that LOVES their crate … and you’ll have a safer home and less stress in your life, as well.
And check out this article if you need help and advice getting your puppy to sleep through the night.
If you have found this information helpful, check out our new book, 101 Essential Tips: Puppy or New Dog - Health and Safety for more handy information. Or, tell us what’s worked well for you when crate training, and what hasn’t. What types of toys, treats, and food puzzles do your